Κυριακή, 16 Οκτωβρίου 2016


About the Human process: Κant, Rousseau and Marx

Sapere aude

According Kant enlightenment is a condition of human, which the man released from afthypaitia (self-incurred) immaturity. Indeed, Kant defined as immature the inability, on part of human, to use his intellect, without the guidance of another. Also, as afthypaitia (self-incurred) Kant understands the cause of immaturity who consist the deficit determination and courage to one’s use its intellect. He said the philosopher: Have courage to use your own mind. This is the dictum of enlightenment[1].

Another key concept on Kant’s philosophy, is that of guardians who have a key role in maintaining the existing social contract. Through these, and the methods of manipulation, who using (the guardians), maintained the social inequality and consequently the power and their principals (the guardians). The only way to elucidate public is aftodiafotisi (enlightenment it- self). Because, even if we assume, that someone who has been a guardian of the public and is independently minded, will some time put himself under the yoke he had put to the public. This situation works both ways, since the terms of guidance, that puts on the public from the guardian, makes the public will-less and compatible. So, the public automatically creates a specific field (status) of mental processing, which in turn impose a particular status on those designated from guardians. Of course, we should note that aftodiafotisi will be completed through a slow process and on basis to freedom of speech and thought[2].

However, Kant, to freedom of speech, sets on the operation of two mechanisms: one is the Private Reason and the other is the Public Reason. In a nutshell, what Kant tells us is the private reason of an institutional member, at the time of duty, cannot be diverted from already known cognition. On the other hand, the institutional member itself can put comments and thoughts on what are set to say or do, but only in the case the Act  (of Private Reason) does not conflicted directly with the Act (of Public reason), which imposed from the institutional position to perform. Kant’s explanation essentially defines the process of enlightenment rather enlightenment itself. This because, the Enlightenment, for the philosopher, is the complete freedom of man which must be conscious and to achieved that is necessary the activation of the mechanisms of reason, on individual and collective level, to enable the society to receive the Enlightenment[3].


Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains

Rousseau, with a highly intelligent and spiritual reason, essentially broke the raison d'être of the Academy. Rousseau using rhetorical schemes -to the text, which sent to the Academy of Dijon in 1750- broke every allegation of Western culture for its moral orientation. With historical references shows the hidden corruption in the arts and sciences, in ethos of the people. Of course, literature, sciences and the arts must assume their share of responsibility. In the view of Kant, on Enlightenment, Rousseau is enlightened figure, because it is able through a public reason to express critical and thoughtful views and positions about the society and its culture. Of course, Kant say’s, this reason is not within an institutional framework, to create turbulence in society. But Rousseau views can enter on human thoughts through a gradual process, freeing the mind. Indeed, we should note that the work Discourse on the Origins of Inequality raises again the sciences and the arts before their responsibilities on the inequality at the society of human. Studying the work of Rousseau any one can see the desire for complete freedom of man. Of course, as in case of Kant, the process cannot be direct, but progressive[4].








Revolutions are the locomotives of history


Marx in his work Alienation Labor addresses issues related to political economy and how it affects humans-worker. The philosopher Marx, deals with issues of class differences and competition between the two classes, rich and poor. All terms that involved in philosophical reason of Marx, attributed to issues of class differences and consequently in struggle of two classes[5]. Also, Marx in the Communist Manifesto, which composed approach again the class inequality and alienation of man from its very nature. The reason of Marx's constitutes a radical doctrine, with the man at the epicenter[6]. Of course, the class differences poses a number of issues that are not present to develop. But, according to the definition given by Kant about the Enlightenment, we could not characterize Marx, as enlightened. Certainly Marx was a personality with insight and multidimensional thinking, but the main opposition with Kant was that latter believed the process towards enlightenment is a gradual and evolutionary process. This because people do not have the strength and ability to manage their free will. Marx is not shared that view and this is the cause who puts a revolutionary reason without sees the disadvantages in human nature in general.







[1] Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” http://ebooks.gutenberg.us/WorldeBookLibrary.com/whatenli.htm
[2] Immanuel Kant, “What is Enlightenment?” http://ebooks.gutenberg.us/WorldeBookLibrary.com/whatenli.htm
[3] Jean-Jacques Rousseau, "Discourse on the Origins of Inequality" http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11136
[4] Jean-Jacques Rousseau, "Discourse on the Arts and Sciences" http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/r/rousseau/jean_jacques/arts/
[5] Karl Marx, "Estranged Labor" from 1844 Manuscripts http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/manuscripts/labour.htm/
[6] Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto" http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/61